Wildlife Conservation Strategy, 2002

Eco sensitive

Strategy 2002 talks about “protecting the interests of the poor and tribals living around protected areas”. The Strategy 2002 recommends that the settlement of rights of people inside protected areas should not become an excuse to exclude or reduce areas that are crucial wildlife habitats. If it had analysed the situation, it would have realised that such reduction is happening precisely because of the mistaken notion that people and wildlife cannot co-exist, and because politicians and vested interests have used people’s hostility to demand such reduction.

Refer to download http://envfor.nic.in/sites/default/files/annual_report/wildlife_conservation_strategy.pdf

Reference – The Hindu

List of Eco Sensitive Zones ( ESZs) in India

Eco sensitive

Eco Sensitive Zones in Andhra Pradesh

  1.  Pulicat Wildlife Sanctuary
  2. Great Indian Bustard Rollapadu Wildlife Sanctuary
  3. Kambalakonda Wildlife Sanctuary
  4. Rajiv Gandhi National Park
  5. Nelapattu Bird Sanctuary
  6. Sri Lankamalleswara Wildlife Sanctuary

Eco Sensitive Zones in Andaman and Nicobar

  1. 97 Protected Areas in the Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands
  2. Saddle Peak National Park

Eco Sensitive Zones in Assam

  1. Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary

Eco Sensitive Zones in Bihar

  1. Baraila Lake Salim Ali Jubba Sahni Bird Sanctuary
  2. Rajgir Wildlife Sanctuary
  3. Kaimur Wildlife Sanctuary
  4. Udaipur Wildlife Sanctuary
  5. Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary
  6. Gautam Buddha Wildlife Sanctuary
  7. Kusheshwar Asthan Bird Sanctuary
  8. Valmiki Wildlife Sanctuary, Valmiki National Park and Valmiki Tiger Reserve

Eco Sensitive Zones in Chandigarh

  1. Bird Sanctuary, Union Territory, Chandigarh
  2. Sukhna Wildlife Sanctuary, Chandigarh.

Eco Sensitive Zones in Chattisgarh

  1. Barnawapara Wildlife Sanctuary
  2. Pamed Wildlife Sanctuary

Eco Sensitive Zones in Dadra Nagar Haveli

  1. Dadra and Nagar Haveli WLS

Eco Sensitive Zones in Delhi

  1. Asola Bhatti Wildlife Sanctuary, NCT, Delhi

Eco Sensitive Zones in Goa

  1. Dr. Salim Ali Wildlife Sanctuary 
  2. Cotigao WLS
  3. Netravali WLS 
  4. Madei WLS
  5. Bhagwan Mahaveer WLS
  6. Bondla WLS

Eco Sensitive Zones in Gujarat

  1. Marine National and Marine Sanctuary
  2. Girnar Reserve Forest
  3. Narayan Sarovar Wildlife Sanctuary
  4. Purna Wildlife Sanctuary
  5. Vansda NP
  6. Barda Wildlife Sanctuary
  7. Thol Bird Sanctuary
  8. Thol Bird Sanctuary
  9. Shoolpaneshwar Wildlife Sanctuary
  10. Porbandar Wildlife Sanctuary,
  11. Gaga Sanctuary
  12. Nalsarovar Bird Sanctuary
  13. Hingolgadh Wildlife Sanctuary
  14. Velavadhar Wild Life Sanctuary
  15. Khijadiya Wildlife Sanctuary
  16. Rampara Wildlife Sanctuary
  17. Jessore Wildlife Sanctuary

Eco Sensitive Zones in Haryana

  1. Sultanpur NP
  2. Khol Hi Raitan Wildlife Sanctuary
  3. Bir Shikargarh Wildlife Sanctuary
  4. Khaparwas Wildlife Sanctuary
  5.  Kalesar National Park and Kalesar Wildlife Sanctuary
  6. Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary
  7. Chhilchhila Wildlife Sanctuary

Eco Sensitive Zones in Himachal Pradesh

  1. Daranghati Wildlife Sanctuary
  2. Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary
  3. Shimla Water Catchment WLS
  4. Rakchham-Chitkul Wildlife Sanctuary (previously known as Sangla Valley)
  5. Talra Wildlife Sanctuary
  6. Sechu Tuan Nala Wildlife Sanctuary
  7. Inderkila National Park

Eco Sensitive Zones in Jammu and Kashmir

  1. Jasrota Wildlife Sanctuary

Eco Sensitive Zones in Jharkhand

  1. Dalma Wildlife Sanctuary, Jharkand-West Bengal

Eco Sensitive Zones in Karnataka

  1. Bandipur NP
  2. Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary
  3. Brahmagiri Wildlife Sanctuary
  4. Arabithittu Wildlife Sanctuary
  5. Attiveri Bird Sanctuary
  6. Ghataprabha Bird Sanctuary
  7. Ranebennur Blackbuck Sanctuary
  8. Rangayyanadurga Four Horned Antelope Wildlife Sanctuary
  9. Gudekote Sloth Bear Sanctuary
  10. Gudavi Bird Sanctuary
  11. Pushpagiri Wildlife Sanctuary
  12. Cauvery Wildlife Sanctuary
  13. Malai Mahadeshwara Wildlife
  14. Melukote Wildlife Sanctuary
  15. Talacauvery Wildlife Sanctuary
  16. Ranganthittu Bird Sanctuary
  17. Ramadevarabetta Vulture Sanctuary
  18. Nugu Wildlife Sanctuary

Eco Sensitive Zones in Kerala

[ Draft Notifications ]

  1. Chulannur Peafowl Sanctuary
  2. Eravikulam National Park, Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, Anamudi Shola National Park, Pampadum Shola National Park and Kurinjimala Sanctuary
  3. Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary
  4. Malabar Wildlife Sanctuary
  5. Silent Valley National Park
  6. Thattekkad Bird Sanctuary
  7. Peechi-Vazhani Wildlife Sanctuary
  8. Mathikettan Shola National Park
  9. Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary
  10. Periyar Tiger Reserve
  11. Chimmony Wildlife Sanctuary
  12. Idukki Wildlife Sanctuary
  13. Neyyar and Peppara Wildlife Sanctuaries
  14. Parambikulam Tiger Reserve
  15. Kottiyoor Wildlife Sanctuary
  16. Manglavanam Bird Sanctuary 

Eco Sensitive Zones in Madhya Pradesh

  1. Son Gharial Wildlife Sanctuary
  2. Gandhi Sagar WLS
  3. Ghatigaon Hukna Wildlife Sanctuary
  4. Satpura Tiger Reserve
  5. Dinosaur National Park
  6. Bandhavgarh National Park and Panpatha Wildlife Sanctuary
  7. Bagdara Wildlife Sanctuary
  8. Ghughua Fossil National Park
  9. Ken Garial Wildlife Sanctuary
  10. Madhav National Park
  11. Sanjay National Park and Sanjay Dubri Wildlife Sanctuary
  12. Karera Wildlife Sanctuary
  13. Nauradehi Wildlife Sanctuary
  14. Ratapani and Singhori WLS
  15. Van Vihar National Park
  16. Narsinghgarh Wildlife Sanctuary
  17. Orchha Wildlife Sanctuary
  18. Kheoni Wildlife Sanctuary

Eco Sensitive Zones in Maharashtra

  1. Nagzira WildlifeSanctuary, New Nagzira Wildlife Sanctuary, Koka Wildlife Sanctuary, Navegaon Wildlife Sanctuary and Navegaon National Park
  2. Painganga Wildlife Sanctuary
  3. Gautala Autramghat Wildlife Sanctuary
  4. KARNALA Wildlife Sanctuary 
  5. Umred Karhandla Wildlife Sanctuary
  6. Gangewadi New Great Indian Bustard Sanctuary
  7. Phansad Wildlife Sanctuary
  8. Bhamragarh Wildlife Sanctuary
  9. Yedshi Ramling Ghat WLS
  10.  Dyanganga Wildlife Sanctuary
  11. Sagareshwar WLS
  12. Kalsubai Harishchandragad Wildlife Sanctuary
  13. Melghat Tiger Reserve
  14. Sanjay Gandhi National Park
  15. Jaikawadi Bird Sanctuary
  16. Pench National Park and the Mansinghdeo Wildlife Sanctuary
  17. Lonar WLS

Eco Sensitive Zones in Manipur

  1. Kailam WLS
  2. Yangoupokpi Lokchao Wildlife Sanctuary
  3. Bunning Wildlife Sanctuary
  4. Keibul Lamjao National Park
  5. Jiri – Makru Wildlife Sanctuary

Eco Sensitive Zones in Meghalaya

  1. Narpuh Wildlife Sanctuary,
  2. Nongkhyllem Reserved Forest Sanctuary

Eco Sensitive Zones in Mizoram [Draft Notifications ]

  1. Khawnglung Wildlife Sanctuary
  2. Tawi Wildlife Sanctuary
  3. Pualreng Wildlife Sanctuary
  4. Murlen National Park
  5. Thorangtlang Wildlife Sanctuary
  6. Lengteng Wildlife Sanctuary 
  7. Dampa Tiger Reserve

Eco Sensitive Zones in Odisha

  1. Chandaka Dampara Wildlife Sanctuary
  2. Kapilash Wildlife Sanctuary
  3. Balukhand-Konark WLS
  4. Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary and Gahirmatha (Marine) Wildlife Sanctuary
  5. Debrigarh Wildlife Sanctuary
  6.  Kuldiha Wildlife Sanctuary

Eco Sensitive Zones in Punjab

  1. Bir Dosanjh Wildlife Sanctuary
  2. Abohar Wildlife Sanctuary
  3. Bir Moti Bagh Wildlife Sanctuary
  4. Harike Wildlife Sanctuary
  5. Jhajjar- Bachauli Wildlife 
  6. Bir Aishwan WLS
  7. Bir Gurdialpura Wildlife Sanctuary
  8. Kathlaur-Kushalia Wildlife Sanctuary
  9. Bir Bhunerheri Wildlife Sanctuary
  10. Takhni – Rehmapur Wildlife Sanctuary
  11. Bir Mehas WLS
  12. Bir Bhadson Wildlife Sanctuary
  13. Nangal WLS

Eco Sensitive Zones in Rajasthan

  1. Todgarh Raoli Wildlife Sanctuary
  2. Van Vihar WLS
  3. Sajjangarh Wildlife Sanctuary
  4. Sitamata Wildlife Sanctuary

Eco Sensitive Zones in Sikkim

  1. Khangchendzonga NP
  2. Fambonglho Wildlife Sanctuary
  3. Kyongnosla Wildlife Sanctuary
  4. Pangolakha Widllife Sanctuary
  5. Maenam Wildlife Sanctuary
  6. Shingba Rhododendron Sanctuary
  7. Barsey Rhododendron Sanctuary
  8. Kitam Bird Sanctuary

Eco Sensitive Zones in Tamil Nadu

[ Draft Notifications ]

  1. Chitrangudi Bird Sanctuary
  2. Karaivetti Bird Sanctuary
  3. Koonthankulam Bird Sanctuary
  4.  Udayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary
  5. Mudumalai Tiger Reserve
  6. Therthnagal Bird Sanctuary
  7. Sakkarakottai Bird Sanctuary
  8.  Srivilliputhur Grizzled Squirrel Sanctuary
  9. Kanjirankulam Bird Sanctuary
  10. Vallanadu Black Buck Sanctuary
  11. Vettangudi Bird Sanctuary,
  12. Melaselvanur-Kelaselvanoor Bird Sanctuary
  13. Kanyakumari Sanctuary
  14. Gulf of Mannar National Park

Eco Sensitive Zones in Telangana

  1. Pakhal Wildlife Sanctuary
  2. Manjeera Wildlife Sanctuary
  3. Pocharam Wildlife Sanctuary
  4. Mahavir Harina Vanasthali National Park
  5. Kinnerasani Wildlife Sanctuary

Eco Sensitive Zones in Tripura

  1. Rowa Wildlife Sanctuary

Eco Sensitive Zones in Uttarakhand

[ Draft Notifications ]

  1.  valley of flowers Wildlife Sanctuary
  2. Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary
  3. Nandhar WLS, 
  4. Nandadevi National Park, Uttarakhand.
  5. Kedarnath Musk Deer Sanctuary
  6. Gangotri National Park
  7. Rajaji National Park 

Eco Sensitive Zones in Uttar Pradesh

  1. Okhla Bird Sanctuary 
  2.  Kaimur Wild Life Sanctuary
  3. Ranipur Wildlife Sanctuary
  4. Saman Bird Sanctuary
  5. Parwati Arga Wildlife Sanctuary
  6. Sohagi Barwa Wildlife Sanctuary

Eco Sensitive Zones in West Bengal

  1. Jaldapara National Park
  2. Neora Valley National Park
  3. Singalila National Park,

 

Guidelines for declaration of eco sensitive zones around national parks and wildlife sanctuaries

environment

If unable to open refer – Guidelines, Amendments and Important Court Orders on ESZ

What is Eco-Sensitive Zones (ESZs) or Ecologically Fragile Areas (EFAs) ?

Eco

Eco-Sensitive Zones (ESZs) or Ecologically Fragile Areas (EFAs) are areas notified by the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC), Government of India around Protected Areas , National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries. The purpose of declaring ESZs is to create some kind of “shock absorbers” to the protected areas by regulating and managing the activities around such areas. They also act as a transition zone from areas of high protection to areas involving lesser protection. [ Source – Wikipedia ]

ESZ has been notified in “Wildlife Conservation Strategy 2002” as “Lands falling within 10 km. of the boundaries of National Parks and Sanctuaries should be notified as eco-fragile zones under section 3(v) of the Environment ( Protection ) Act and Rule 5 Sub-rule 5(viii) & (x) of the Environment ( Protection ) Rules.”

You can refer to “Guidelines for declaration of eco sensitive zones around national parks and wildlife sanctuaries” at Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate change (MoEFCC) website. or the pdf can be downloaded from link.

Reference – Guidelines, Amendments and Important Court Orders on ESZ

Rule 7 of income tax act – Income which is partially agricultural and partially from business .

income-tax

7 . (1)In the case of income which is partially agricultural income as defined in section 2 and partially income chargeable to income-tax under the head “Profits and gains of business”, in determining that part which is chargeable to income-tax the market value of any agricultural produce which has been raised by the assessee or received by him as rent-in-kind and which has been utilised as a raw material in such business or the sale receipts of which are included in the accounts of the business shall be deducted, and no further deduction shall be made in respect of any expenditure incurred by the assessee as a cultivator or receiver of rent-in-kind.

(2) For the purposes of sub-rule (1) “market value” shall be deemed to be :—

(a) where agricultural produce is ordinarily sold in the market in its raw state, or after application to it of any process ordinarily employed by a cultivator or receiver of rent-in-kind to render it fit to be taken to market, the value calculated according to the average price at which it has been so sold during the relevant previous year;

(b) where agricultural produce is not ordinarily sold in the market in its raw state or after application to it of any process aforesaid, the aggregate of—

(i) the expenses of cultivation;

(ii) the land revenue or rent paid for the area in which it was grown; and

(iii) such amount as the [Assessing Officer] finds, having regard to all the circumstances in each case, to represent a reasonable profit.

Subsections of Rule 7 are,

Rule 7A of income tax act – Income from the manufacture of rubber

Rubber

7A.[(1) Income derived from the sale of centrifuged latex or cenex or latex based crepes (such as pale latex crepe) or brown crepes (such as estate brown crepe, remilled crepe, smoked blanket crepe or flat bark crepe) or technically specified block rubbers manufactured or processed from field latex or coagulum obtained from rubber plants grown by the seller in India shall be computed as if it were income derived from business, and thirty-five per cent of such income shall be deemed to be income liable to tax.]

(2) In computing such income, an allowance shall be made in respect of the cost of planting rubber plants in replacement of plants that have died or become permanently useless in an area already planted, if such area has not previously been abandoned, and for the purpose of determining such cost, no deduction shall be made in respect of the amount of any subsidy which, under the provisions of clause (31) of section 10, is not includible in the total income.

Reference – https://www.incometaxindia.gov.in/Pages/rules/income-tax-rules-1962.aspx

Rule 8 of income tax act –Income from the manufacture of tea

tea

8. (1) Income derived from the sale of tea grown and manufactured by the seller in India shall be computed as if it were income derived from business, and forty per cent of such income shall be deemed to be income liable to tax.

(2) In computing such income an allowance shall be made in respect of the cost of planting bushes in replacement of bushes that have died or become permanently useless in an area already planted, if such area has not previously been abandoned [, and for the purpose of determining such cost, no deduction shall be made in respect of the amount of any subsidy which, under the provisions of clause (30) of section 10, is not includible in the total income.]

Reference – https://www.incometaxindia.gov.in/Pages/rules/income-tax-rules-1962.aspx

Rule 7b of income tax act – Income from the manufacture of coffee

Coffee

7B. [(1) Income derived from the sale of coffee grown and cured by the seller in India shall be computed as if it were income derived from business, and twenty-five per cent of such income shall be deemed to be income liable to tax.

(1A) Income derived from the sale of coffee grown, cured, roasted and grounded by the seller in India, with or without mixing chicory or other flavouring ingredients, shall be computed as if it were income derived from business, and forty per cent of such income shall be deemed to be income liable to tax.

Explanation : For the purposes of sub-rules (1) and (1A) “curing” shall have the same meaning as assigned to it in clause (d) of section 3 of the Coffee Act, 1942 (7 of 1942).]

(2) In computing [the incomes referred to in sub-rules (1) and (1A)], an allowance shall be made in respect of the cost of planting coffee plants in replacement of plants that have died or become permanently useless in an area already planted, if such area has not previously been abandoned, and for the purpose of determining such cost, no deduction shall be made in respect of the amount of any subsidy which, under the provisions of clause (31) of section 10, is not includible in the total income.]

Related Posts – Agriculture & India’s Income Tax : Part 1 – Meaning of “agricultural income”