Installing Solar Water Heater for Home – Information and Costing

Solar Water Heater

Recently we installed 150 Litre Solar Water Heaters at our terrace. Below are the Information, photos and costing for Installation of Solar Water Heater.

When you decides to install solar water heater, you need to consider following factors,

  • How many people are there in your home who will be using hot water ?
    • Based on this the number of Liter water required needs to be finalized. Lets say, you have 3 people at your home and each one will use average 50 Ltr of hot water each day, then you will need to purchase 50*3 = 150 Ltr solar water heater.
  • What is your budget for purchasing new solar water heater ?
    • As you might already be aware, solar products needs somewhat more initial investment, so you needs to enquire different brands available in market and compare their pricing and features for same model of solar water heater.
  • What is the warranty of the solar water heater and how you will contact them in future for servicing ?
    • Most of the solar water heaters are long durable, and comes warranty of 5-7 years. So you needs to get proper warranty information and how they will provide the service for future in case some issues. Once installed, the most common issue you might face is due to hardened water. But if you are ready to get solar water heater serviced once in one / two year then no issues.

The common pricing for installing solar water heater will include following things,

  • Solar Water Heater Price + Tax
  • Transportation Cost
    • If you have agreed to pay for transportation cost of solar water heater ( tank + pipe etc ) from company to your home, then we need to account this cost.
  • Plumbing Material and Service cost
    • This will be an additional cost which includes purchasing all the pipes ( hot water pipe, cold water pipe ), valves etc and payment of plumber services. If your current cold water tank is at same surface level where are going to install water heater, then there will be additional cost to increase height of cold water tank, so that daily transmission of cold water to solar water heater and hot water from water heater to your bathroom tap can be automated without daily efforts required to fill solar water heater tank.
150 Litre Water Tank with Stainless Still Inside and Puffing material between stainless still and outside plastic to prevent heat flow to outside.
Socket to connect Glass Tubes with Stainless steel Tank
Socket for Cold Water Inlet to Water Tank
Other side Socket for Hot Water Outlet
Glass Tube Specifications
Solar Water Heater Frame where Water Tank gets installed and on slider Glass tubes resides.
Plumbing Material ( Pipes are not in Photo )
Frame After Water Tank is placed on Top Surface.
Frame End towards ground where end of Glass Tube is held.
This is how Final Installation Looks Like 🙂

Refer to “Guidelines for installation of Solar Water Heating Systems in high rise buildings and multi storied flats” Issued by MNRE down-loadable from LINK.

International days related to Forest, Birds and Wild Life

WMBD

World Wildlife Day – 3 March

World Wildlife Day is an opportunity to celebrate the many beautiful and varied forms of wild fauna and flora and to raise awareness of the multitude of benefits that conservation provides to people. At the same time, the Day reminds us of the urgent need to step up the fight against wildlife crime, which has wide-ranging economic, environmental and social impacts. On 20 December 2013, the Sixty-eighth session of the United Nations General Assembly decided to proclaim 3 March as World Wildlife Day to celebrate and raise awareness of the world’s wild fauna and flora. Read More

 

International Day of Forests – 21 March

The United Nations General Assembly adopted resolution A/RES/67/200 on 21 December 2012, which declared that 21 March of each year is to be observed as the International Day of Forests. The International Day of Forests is held annually on 21 March to raise awareness of the importance of forests to people. Forests shelter, nurture and inspire. 1.6 billion people depend on forests for their livelihoods, medicine, fuel and food. Forests cover 31% of global land area. The International Day provides a platform to communicate the vital role forests play in poverty eradication, environmental sustainability and food security. Read More

 

World Migratory Bird Day (WMBD) – Second week of May

World Migratory Bird Day (WMBD) was initiated in 2006 and is an annual awareness-raising campaign highlighting the need for the conservation of migratory birds and their habitats. Each year, on the second week in May, people around the world take action and organize public events such as bird festivals, education programmes, exhibitions and bird-watching excursions to celebrate WMBD. However, countries or regions observing the peak of migrations at other times of the year are encouraged to celebrate WMBD when it is most appropriate for them. Read More

International Day for Biological Diversity – 22 May

The United Nations General Assembly, by its resolution 55/201 of 20 December 2000, proclaimed 22 May as The International Day for Biological Diversity, to increase understanding and awareness of biodiversity issues. Biological diversity — or biodiversity — is the term given to the variety of life on Earth and the natural patterns it forms. The biodiversity we see today is the fruit of billions of years of evolution, shaped by natural processes and, increasingly, by the influence of humans. It forms the web of life of which we are an integral part and upon which we so fully depend. This diversity is often understood in terms of the wide variety of plants, animals and microorganisms. Read More

 

World Habitat Day – First Monday of October

In 1985 the United Nations designated the first Monday of October every year as World Habitat Day. The idea is to reflect on the state of our towns and cities and the basic right of all to adequate shelter. It is also intended to remind the world of its collective responsibility for the future of the human habitat. Read More

 

World Elephant Day – 12 August

On August 12, 2012, the inaugural World Elephant Day was launched to bring attention to the urgent plight of Asian and African elephants. The elephant is loved, revered and respected by people and cultures around the world, yet we balance on the brink of seeing the last of this magnificent creature. World Elephant Day asks you to experience elephants in non-exploitive and sustainable environments where elephants can thrive under care and protection. On World Elephant Day, August 12, express your concern, share your knowledge and support solutions for the better care of captive and wild elephants alike.
Check Official Website of World Elephant day.

International days related to Ocean, Meteorology and Water Conservation

water2016

World Water Day – 22 March

International World Water Day is held annually on 22 March as a means of focusing attention on the importance of freshwater and advocating for the sustainable management of freshwater resources. An international day to celebrate freshwater was recommended at the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro. The United Nations General Assembly responded by designating 22 March 1993 as the first World Water Day. Read More and unwater.org/worldwaterday

 

World Meteorological Day – 23 March

World Meteorological Day is an occasion to highlight the work that National Meteorological and Hydrological Services accomplish 24 hours a day, 365 days a year to watch the weather and protect life and property. Read More

 

World Oceans Day – 8 June

By its resolution 63/111 of 5 December 2008, the UN General Assembly designated 8 June as World Oceans Day. The concept of a ‘World Oceans Day’ was first proposed in 1992 at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro as a way to celebrate our world’s shared ocean and our personal connection to the sea, as well as to raise awareness about the crucial role the ocean plays in our lives and the important ways people can help protect it. Read More

World Day of the Seafarer – 25 June

Seafarers are the people without whom food, clothes, gifts, gadgets or even basic needs would not reach our doors. We rely on them every day. In 2010, the Diplomatic Conference which met in Manila to adopt milestone revisions to the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (the STCW Convention) and its associated Code, also agreed that the unique contribution made by seafarers from all over the world to international seaborne trade, the world economy and civil society as a whole, should be marked annually with a ‘Day of the Seafarer’. The date chosen was 25 June, the day on which the amendments were formally adopted. Read More

 

World Maritime Day – 29 September
World Maritime Day is an occasion to focus attention, on the wider spectrum of maritime education and training, in particular its adequacy and quality, as the bedrock of a safe and secure shipping industry, which needs to preserve the quality, practical skills and competence of qualified human resources, in order to ensure its sustainability. Read More

 

 

 

International days related to Environment

ozone day

World Environment Day (WED) –  5 June

World Environment Day (WED) is the United Nations’ principal vehicle for encouraging worldwide awareness and action for the environment. Over the years it has grown to be a broad, global platform for public outreach that is widely celebrated by stakeholders in over 100 countries. It also serves as the ‘people’s day’ for doing something positive for the environment, galvanizing individual actions into a collective power that generates an exponential positive impact on the planet. – Read More

 

International Mother Earth Day – 22 April

International Mother Earth Day promotes a view of the Earth as the entity that sustains all living things found in nature. It honors the Earth as a whole and our place within it. It does not seek to replace other events, such as Earth Day, which has been celebrated by many people around the world on 22 March since the 1970s, but rather to reinforce and reinterpret them based on the evolving challenges we face. Read More

International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer – 16 September

In 1994, the UN General Assembly proclaimed 16 September the International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer, commemorating the date of the signing, in 1987, of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (resolution 49/114). The ozone layer, a fragile shield of gas, protects the Earth from the harmful portion of the rays of the sun, thus helping preserve life on the planet. Read More

 

International Day for Preventing the Exploitation of the Environment in War and Armed Conflict ( Environment Conflict Day ) – 6 November

On 5 November 2001, the UN General Assembly declared 6 November of each year as the International Day for Preventing the Exploitation of the Environment in War and Armed Conflict (A/RES/56/4). Though mankind has always counted its war casualties in terms of dead and wounded soldiers and civilians, destroyed cities and livelihoods, the environment has often remained the unpublicized victim of war.Water wells have been polluted, crops torched, forests cut down, soils poisoned, and animals killed to gain military advantage. Read More

International & National Days related to Agriculture & Rural

Soil Day

International Day of Rural Woman – 15 October

Every year 15 October is celebrated as International day of Rural Woman. The first International Day of Rural Women was observed on 15 October 2008. This new international day, established by the General Assembly in its resolution 62/136 of 18 December 2007, recognizes “the critical role and contribution of rural women, including indigenous women, in enhancing agricultural and rural development, improving food security and eradicating rural poverty.” More Reference

 

World Food Day – 16 October

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) celebrates World Food Day each year on 16 October, the day on which the Organization was founded in 1945. More Reference

World Day to Combat Desertification – 17 June

Desertification is a phenomenon that ranks among the greatest environmental challenges of our time. Yet most people haven’t heard of it or don’t understand it. Although desertification can include the encroachment of sand dunes on land, it doesn’t refer to the advance of deserts. Rather, it is the persistent degradation of dryland ecosystems by human activities — including unsustainable farming, mining, overgrazing and clear-cutting of land — and by climate change. Read More

 

World Soil Day – 5 December

The International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS), in 2002, adopted a resolution proposing the 5th of December as World Soil Day to celebrate the importance of soil as a critical component of the natural system and as a vital contributor to human well being. The FAO Conference, in June 2013, unanimously endorsed World Soil Day and requested official adoption at the 68th UN General Assembly. In December 2013, the 68th UN General Assembly declared 5th of December as the World Soil Day. More Reference

 

Kisan Divas (Farmer’s Day) in India – 23 December

It seems there is no formal central government recognised farmers day is in India, but some states of country celebrates Kisan Diwas (Farmer’s Day) every year on 23 December to celebrate the birth anniversary of the fifth prime minister and kisan leader, late Chaudhary Charan Singh.

Agriculture & India’s Income Tax : Part 1 – Meaning of “agricultural income”

income-tax

The definition of “Agriculture Income” has been defined in “Section – 2 (1A), Income-tax Act, 1961-2015” .. this definition as per act is as follow,

(1A) 1“agricultural income”2 means—

    (a)  any rent or revenue derived from land which is situated in India and is used for agricultural purposes;

    (b)  any income derived from such land by—

         (i)  agriculture; or

         (ii)  the performance by a cultivator or receiver of rent-in-kind of any process ordinarily employed by a cultivator or receiver of rent-in-kind to render the produce raised or received by him fit to be taken to market; or

         (iii) the sale by a cultivator or receiver of rent-in-kind of the produce raised or received by him, in respect of which no process has been performed other than a process of the nature described in paragraph (ii) of this sub-clause ;

     (c)  any income derived from any building owned and occupied by the receiver of the rent or revenue of any such land, or occupied by the cultivator or the receiver of rent-in-kind, of any land with respect to which, or the produce of which, any process mentioned in paragraphs (ii) and (iii) of sub-clause (b) is carried on :

Provided that—

 (i)  the building is on or in the immediate vicinity of the land, and is a building which the receiver of the rent or revenue or the cultivator, or the receiver of rent-in-kind, by reason of his connection with the land, requires as a dwelling house, or as a store-house, or other out-building, and

(ii)  the land is either assessed to land revenue in India or is subject to a local rate assessed and collected by officers of the Government as such or where the land is not so assessed to land revenue or subject to a local rate, it is not situated—

         (A)  in any area which is comprised within the jurisdiction of a municipality (whether known as a municipality, municipal corporation, notified area committee, town area committee, town committee or by any other name) or a cantonment board and which has a population of not less than ten thousand 3[***]; or

        4[(B) in any area within the distance, measured aerially,—

                    (I)  not being more than two kilometres, from the local limits of any municipality or cantonment board referred to in item (A) and which has a population of more than ten thousand but not exceeding one lakh; or

                    (II) not being more than six kilometres, from the local limits of any municipality or cantonment board referred to in item (A) and which has a population of more than one lakh but not exceeding ten lakh; or

                    (III) not being more than eight kilometres, from the local limits of any municipality or cantonment board referred to in item (A) and which has a population of more than ten lakh.

Explanation 1.—For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that revenue derived from land shall not include and shall be deemed never to have included any income arising from the transfer of any land referred to in item (a) or item (b) of sub-clause (iii) of clause (14) of this section.

Explanation 2.—For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that income derived from any building or land referred to in sub-clause (c) arising from the use of such building or land for any purpose (including letting for residential purpose or for the purpose of any business or profession) other than agriculture falling under sub-clause (a) or sub-clause (b) shall not be agricultural income.

Explanation 3.—For the purposes of this clause, any income derived from saplings or seedlings grown in a nursery shall be deemed to be agricultural income.

5[Explanation 4.—For the purposes of clause (ii) of the proviso to sub-clause (c), “population” means the population according to the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published before the first day of the previous year;]

You may also like to read “Agriculture & India’s Income Tax : Part 2 – Frequently Asked Questions ( FAQ )”

Reference : Income Tax Act, 2 ( 1A)

Agriculture & India’s Income Tax : Part 2 – Frequently Asked Questions ( FAQ )

income-tax

If you have already read “Agriculture & India’s Income Tax : Part 1 – Meaning of “agricultural income” continue with this post.

Question: I am a Farmer / an agriculturist. Is my income taxable ?

Answer: As per section10(1), agricultural income earned by the taxpayer in India is exempt from tax. Agricultural income is defined under section 2(1A) of the Income-tax Act. So, Agricultural income is not taxable. However, if you have non-agricultural income too, then while calculating tax on non-agricultural income, your agricultural income will be taken into account for rate purpose.

Question : Under the Income-tax Law is income from animal husbandry considered as an agricultural income ?

Answer : No

Question: What is income tax on Manufacture of Tea, Coffee and Rubber ?

Answer : Income derived from the sale of tea, coffee or rubbers grown and manufactured by the seller in India shall be computed as if it were income derived from business, and % as mentioned below of such income shall be deemed to be income liable to tax.

Tea : 40%, Rule – 8 – Income from the manufacture of tea
Coffee :  25%  Rule – 7B – Income from the manufacture of coffee
Rubber : 35% – Rule – 7A – Income from the manufacture of rubber

Question : What if Income which is partially agricultural and partially from business ?

Answer :  You can find the details in Rule 7 of Income Tax rules at website Link.

What is GMOs (genetically modified organisms) ?

GMO

Genetically Modified Organisms ( GMOs ) are organisms such as plants, animals and micro-organisms (bacteria, viruses, etc.), the genetic characteristics of which have been modified artificially in a way that does not occur naturally through fertilisation and/or natural recombination in order to give them a new property (a plant’s resistance to a disease or insect, increased crop productivity, a plant’s tolerance of a herbicide, etc.). GMOs may be plants, animals or micro-organisms, such as bacteria, parasites and fungi.

How GMO’s are created ?

Reference : ec.europa.eu

You may also check information about GMO’s from WHO website at “Frequently asked questions on genetically modified foods”

International Free Agriculture Magazines

collage

Magazines published by International Plant Nutrition Institute ( IPNI )

IPNI which works  to develop and promote scientific information about the responsible management of plant nutrition for the benefit of the human family publishes four magazines as below. All the magazines are available in softcopy on the website to download for free. IPNI also sells the books, magazines and soil fertility manuals etc through their online store.

Better Crops With Plant Food ,       Better Crops China ,       Better Crops South Asia


Brazil Agri Magazine

Agriculturas: Experiences in Agroecology

is the quarterly publication by AS-PTA (Advisory Services for Alternative Agriculture Projects) in Brazil. The Portuguese language magazine aims to spread social processes of agro-ecological innovation.

Read or download Magazine at website

 

 


Farming Matters

Farming Matters magazine

Farming Matters informs readers about sustainable, small-scale family farming and agroecology. It offers discussions, background to the news, opinions, research findings, and practical examples of how family farming and agroecology contribute to food security and food sovereignty, social justice, a healthy environment, better nutrition and dignity.

You can read or download the Magazine at agriculturesnetwork website

 


Urban Agriculture

Urban Agriculture Magazine

The Urban Agriculture Magazine is an initiative of the RUAF Foundation. It functions as a platform for exchange and discussion of grounded information on urban agriculture: research results, project experiences, and critical analyses of conventional and innovative policies on urban agriculture. The Urban Agriculture Magazine is published on line in English twice a year.

You can download or read the Magazine at RUAF Website.

What is Minimum Support Price ( MSP ) & related all information

pulses

What is Minimum Support Price ( MSP ) ?

The Minimum Support Price (MSP) Scheme is a scheme of the Government of India (GOI) to safeguard the interests of the farmers. Under this Scheme the GOI declares the minimum support Prices of various agricultural produces and assures the farmers that their agricultural produce (of FAQ) will be purchased at the MSP, thereby preventing its distress sale.

The government uses the MSP as a market intervention tool to incentivise production of a specific food crop which is in short supply. It also protects farmers from any sharp fall in the market price of a commodity. MSPs are usually announced at the beginning of the sowing season and this helps farmers make informed decisions on the crops they must plant.

Who and how MSP is decided ?

MSP is computed on the basis of the recommendations made by the Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP). CACP submits its recommendations to the government in the form of Price Policy Reports every year, separately for five groups of commodities namely Kharif crops, Rabi crops, Sugarcane, Raw Jute and Copra. The government, in turn, circulates the CACP reports to state governments and concerned central Ministries for their comments. After receiving the feed-back from them, the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) of the Union government takes a final decision on the level of MSPs and other recommendations made by CACP. Once this decision is taken, CACP puts all its reports on the web site for various stakeholders to see the rationale behind CACP’s price and non-price recommendations.

How does CACP recommends the MSP ? 

While recommending price policy of various commodities under its mandate, the CACP keeps in mind the various Terms of Reference (ToR) given to CACP in 2009. Accordingly, it analyses

1) demand and supply;
2) cost of production;
3) price trends in the market, both domestic and international;
4) inter-crop price parity;
5) terms of trade between agriculture and non-agriculture; and
6) likely implications of MSP on consumers of that product.

It may be noted that cost of production is an important factor that goes as an input in determination of MSP, but it is certainly not the only factor that determines MSP.

Who Manages the Procurement of Grains ?

The Food Corporation of India (FCI) acts as the Nodal Agency of the GOI for procurement, along with State agencies who establishes purchase centres for procuring food grain under the price support scheme.

Where Can I find current information about MSP ?

References :

पशुसल्ला – गाय, म्हैस व कोंबड्यांसाठी लसीकरण वेळापञक – डॉ. लिना धोटे

कोणताही रोग झाल्यावर लागणाऱ्या खर्चाच्या पटीत लसीकरणाचा खर्च नगण्यच आहे. लसीकरणासाठी लागणारा वेळ आणि पैसा खूप कमी असल्याने त्यापासून होणारा फायदा लक्षात घेता जनावरांना होणाऱ्या रोगांची लस त्या-त्या ऋतूच्या आधी करून घेणे फायदेशीरच आहे .

लसीकरण केल्यामुळे फक्त लसीकरण केलेल्या जनावरालाच नाही तर त्या जनावरांपासून मानवाला होणाऱ्या रोगासही प्रतिबंध होण्यास मदत होते. उदा. रेबीज, ब्रुसेल्ला, लेप्टोस्पायरा, रिफ्ट व्हॅली फिवर, इन्फ्लुएंझा इत्यादी.

  • लसीकरणामुळे जनावरात आढळणाऱ्या रोगांची साखळी तोडली जाऊन त्याचा प्रसार थांबवण्यास मदत होते. संबंधित रोगांपासून होणारी आर्थिक हानी तसेच कष्ट वाचतात.
  • रोगांपासून जनावरे पूर्णपणे बरी होऊनसुद्धा वर्षानुवर्षे अनेक दुष्परिणामांचा सामना करावा लागतो. उदा. लाळ्या-खुरकूत त्यामुळे अशा सगळ्या रोगांना प्रतिबंध हाच एकमेव चांगला उपाय ठरतो. योग्य प्रतिबंधासाठी लसीकरण महत्त्वाचे आहे.
  • प्रतिजैविकांच्या झालेल्या अतिरेकी गैरवापरामुळे प्रतिजैविकरोधी (रेसिसटंट) झालेल्या किंवा कोणतेही प्रतिजैविक वापरून नष्ट न होणारे किंवा त्यांना दाद न देणारे जिवाणू, विषाणू आज वातावरणात पसरले असताना त्यांचा नाश करणे अवघड झाले आहे.
  • बऱ्याच आजारांसाठी लागणाऱ्या लसी जवळील पशुधन विकास अधिकाऱ्यांकडून सवलतीच्या दरात मिळू शकतात; अन्यथा मोठ्या प्रमाणात लसीची आवश्यकता भासल्यास ती लस संबंधिता मार्फत किंवा स्वत: विकत आणू शकतो.

गायी, म्हशीसाठी लसीकरण वेळापत्रक

टीप – लसीकरण पशुवैद्यकाच्या सल्ल्यानेच करावे.

कोंबडयामधील लसीकरण वेळापत्रक

टीप – लसीकरण पशुवैद्यकाच्या सल्ल्यानेच करावे.

लेखक:-
डॉ. लिना धोटे
पशुवैद्यक महाविद्यालय, बिदर, कर्नाटक.

About The Author : Author Dr. Lina Dhote is an assistant professor with Bidar veterinary college, KVAFSU You can reach her through Linkdin at https://in.linkedin.com/in/lina-dhote-1020b2134

Disclaimer : This article is shared by Author with “Green Ecosystem” voluntarily, free of cost and for the purpose to be shared with everyone for free and Green Ecosystem doesn’t own / reserve any rights of this article, all rights remains with the author (as mentioned above) of this article. Contact info@greenecosystem.inwith title of this article if any change.

हिवाळ्यात कोंबड्यांची काळजी कशी घ्यावी – डॉ. लिना धोटे , डॉ. निलेश पानसरे

poultry

बदलत्या वातावरणामुळे जनावरांवर त्याचा काही प्रमाणात चांगला व वाईट परिणाम होतो. थंडी चा काळ हा जनावरांसाठी अतीशय महत्वाचा आहे, त्यात कोंबड्याची  काळजी घेणे अतिशय महत्त्वाची बाब आहे, कारण त्यांच्या शरीराचे तापमान बाकीच्या जनावरांच्या तुलनेत थोडे जास्त असते त्यामुळे थंडी च्या काळात त्यांची विशेष काळजी घ्यावी लागते. या काळात कोंबड्याच्या शरीराचे तापमान टिकवून ठेवण्यासाठी त्यांना जास्तीत जास्त उर्जायुक्त खाद्य पुरवावे.या काळात काळजी न घेतल्यामुळे त्यांची प्रजनन क्षमता,अंडी उबवणी क्षमता,अंडी उत्पादन,पाणी पिण्याची क्षमता अश्या अनेक प्रकारच्या समस्या निर्माण होतात. त्यामुळे कमी तापमानाच्या काळात त्यांच्या आहाराकडे आणि शेडमधील व्यवस्थापणाकडे लक्ष देणे खूप गरजेचे आहे.

आहार व्यवस्थापन

१. कोंबड्यांना संतुलित आहार पुरवावे जेणेकरून त्यांची रोगप्रतिकार क्षमता उत्तम राहील.
२. शेडमध्ये फीडर्स संख्या वाढवावी.दिवसभर त्यांना मुबलक खाद्य मिळेल याची नोंद घ्यावी.
३. शरीराचे तापमान टिकवून ठेवण्यासाठी कोंबड्याना उत्तम दर्जाचे खाद्य देने आवश्यक आहे.
४. कमी तापमानाच्या काळात कोंबड्यानं जास्त प्रमाणात खाद्य द्यावे आणि यावेळी त्यांना ऑक्सिजनची मागणीदेखील जास्त असते.
५. खाद्य बनवताना ऊर्जा असणाऱ्या स्रोतांचा प्रामुख्याने स्निग्ध पदार्थांचा वापर करावा.
६. हिवाळ्यामध्ये कोंबड्या खुप कमी पाणी पितात.कोंबड्याना ताज्या व स्वच्छ पाण्याचा पुरवठा करावा.
७. पाणी खुप थंड असेल तर गरम पाणी मिसळून घ्यावे.त्यामुळे त्यांची पाणी पिण्याची क्षमता वाढेल.
८.एकूण वाटरर्स पैकी काही वाटरर्स मध्ये चव येण्याकरिता ग्लुकोज,साखर, टरबुज- खरबूज च पाणी टाकावे जेणेकरून कोंबड्या पाणी पिणार आणि त्यांची पचनक्रिया अगदी सुरळीत राहील.

शेडचे व्यवस्थापन

१. व्यवस्थापन मध्ये अचानक कुठलंही बदल करू नये.
२. शेडची दिशा पूर्व-पश्चिम असावी त्यामुळे जास्तीत जास्त सूर्यप्रकाश शेडमध्ये येण्यास मदत होते.
३. हिवाळ्यात रात्रीच्या वेळेस तापमान खुप कमी होते,त्यामुळे शेडच्या ज्या भागातून थंड हवा येते अश्या ठिकाणची पूर्ण जागा पडद्यानि बंद करून घ्यावेत आणि परत दुसऱ्या दिवशी सकाळी उघडून घ्यावेत जेनेकरून  सकाळी सुर्यप्रकशाची किरण शेडमध्ये येतील नि कोंबड्याना उब मिळेल.
४. शेडमध्ये चांगल्याप्रकारचे लिटर वापरावे ते नेहमी स्वच्छ व कोरडे असावे लिटर मटेरियल पासून सुद्या कोंबड्याना उब मिळते.
५. शेडमधील हवा खेळती राहण्यासाठी भिंती कमी उंचीच्या व वर जाळी बसवलेली असावी. 
६. प्रदूषित हवा बाहेर फेकण्यासाठी एक्झॅस्ट फॅनची व्यवस्था करावी.
७. शेडभोवतालचा परिसर स्वच्छ ठेवावा. बदलत्या हवामानानुसार व्यवस्थापनामध्ये योग्य ते बदल करण्यासाठी योग्य त्या उपाययोजना कराव्यात.
८. शेडमधील हवा खेळती नसेल तर कोंबड्यांचा विष्टेतुन तयार होणाऱ्या अमोनिया वायूमुळे श्वसन विषयी समस्या तयार होतात.त्यामुळे कोंबड्याना ताप येणे,खोकलने,छातीत दुखणे,श्वसनास त्रास होणे,तोंड पसरून श्वास घेणे,भूक मंदावणे,घरघर असा आवाज येणे अश्या बऱ्याच समस्या उद्भवतात.

लेखक:-
डॉ. लिना धोटे , डॉ. निलेश पानसरे
पशुवैद्यक महाविद्यालय, बिदर, कर्नाटक.

About The Author : Author Dr. Lina Dhote is an assistant professor with Bidar veterinary college, KVAFSU You can reach her through Linkdin at https://in.linkedin.com/in/lina-dhote-1020b2134

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