Foreign Direct Investments ( FDI ) in India for Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and Plantations


As per Foreign Exchange Management (Transfer or Issue of Security by a Person Resident outside India) (Second Amendment) Regulations, 2016, Notification No.FEMA.362/2016-RB, February 15, 2016, Issued by Reserve Bank of India, details of Foreign Direct Investments ( FDI ) in India for Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and Plantations are as below,

1. Agriculture & Animal Husbandry

  • Floriculture, horticulture, Apiculture and Cultivation Of vegetables & mushrooms under controlled conditions;
  • Development and production of seeds and planting ma­terial;
  • Animal Husbandry (including breeding of dogs), Pisiculture, Aquaculture, under controlled conditions; and
  • Services related to agro and allied sectors.
    Note : Besides the above, FDI is not allowed in any other agricultural sector/activity

1.1     Other Conditions
The term ‘under controlled conditions’ covers the following:

  • ‘Cultivation under controlled conditions’ for the categories of floriculture, horticulture, cultivation of vegetables and mushrooms is the practice of cultivation wherein rainfall, temperature, solar radiation, air humidity and culture medium are controlled artificially. Control in these parameters may be effected through protected cultivation under green houses, net houses, poly houses or any other improved infrastructure facilities where micro-climatic conditions are regulated anthropogenically
  • In case of Animal Husbandry, scope of the term ‘under controlled conditions’ covers–
    (a) Rearing of animals under intensive farming systems with stall- feeding. Intensive farming system will require climate systems (ventilation, temperature/humidity management), health care and nutrition, herd registering/pedigree recording, use of machinery, waste management systems as prescribed by the National Livestock Policy 2013 and in conformity with the existing ‘Standard Operating Practices and Minimum Standard Protocol.’
    (b) Poultry breeding farms and hatcheries where micro-climate is controlled through advanced technologies like incubators, ventilation systems etc.
  • (iii) In the case of pisciculture and aquaculture, scope of the term ‘under controlled conditions’ covers–
    (a) Aquariums
    (b) Hatcheries where eggs are artificially fertilized and fry are hatched and incubated in an enclosed environment with artificial climate control.
  • (iv) In the case of apiculture, scope of the term ‘‘under controlled conditions’ covers–
    a) Production of honey by bee-keeping, except in forest/wild, in designated spaces with control of temperatures and climatic factors like humidity and artificial feeding during lean seasons.

Foreign Investment Cap (%) – 100%
Entry Route – Automatic

2. Plantation

  • Tea sector including tea plantations
  • Coffee plantations
  • Rubber Plantations
  • Cardamom plantations
  • Palm oil tree plantations
  • Olive oil tree plantations

Note: FDI is not allowed in any plantation sector/activity except those mentioned above.

2.2     Other Condition
Prior approval of the State Government concerned is required in case of any future land use change.

Foreign Investment Cap (%) – 100%
Entry Route – Automatic route

Reference : Foreign Exchange Management (Transfer or Issue of Security by a Person Resident outside India) (Second Amendment) Regulations, 2016, Notification No.FEMA.362/2016-RB, February 15, 2016, Issued by Reserve Bank of India

Meet the “Mango Man” who grows more than 300 varieties of mangoes on single tree – PadmaShri Haji Kalimullah Khan from Lucknow, India

Mango Man

Haji Kalimullah Khan from Malihabad, Lucknow, India, also called as ‘Mango Man’ has been awarded the Padma Shri in 2008 for his rare technique of growing more than 300 varieties of mangoes of different shapes, sizes and hues on one tree.

Khan’s prized tree is about 100 years old on which he started work in 1987 to develop the craft of growing different varieties on one tree. Using the asexual propagation technique of grafting, he has developed several new varieties of mangoes, some of which has been named after his family members who also were mango growers and some named after celebrities such as Akhilesh Yadav, Sachin Tendulkar, Sonia Gandhi and Aishwarya Rai. Anarkali, a variety of mango developed by him is reported to have two different skins and two different layers of pulp, each having a different taste. Every fruit on this tree has a tiny tin label of identification on its pale green pedicle.

No wonder the tree has been put together with great care. So, the Alphonsos have come all the way from Maharashtra’s Ratnagiri district, the Langras from Bihar, the Himsagars from West Bengal and the Bangan-pallis from Andhra Pradesh. He knows all eyes are on the tree. Hence the constant striving for perfection. “I am angootha-thek (illiterate),” he says, “but I do have something to contribute.”

“Kaleemullah is an amazing man,” grants an official of the Uttar Pradesh government’s directorate of horticulture and food processing.

A local Hindi-language journalist acquiesces: “It’s unbelievable. Kaleemullah can grow two or three varieties of mangoes on the same stalk. What’s more, he recognises every single variety from the way it looks and smells.”

Listen the complete story from Haji Kalimullah Khan own.

You may contact  “Padam Shree Haji Kalimullah Khan” at his Mobile No : +91 9936653445 and address Malihabad, Lucknow, from state Uttar Pradesh in India. His website is

Top 5 Wildlife and Environment Film makers of India

mike pandey
mike pandey
Image Courtesy : Facebook Page

Mike Pandey

Mike Pandey is an Indian film maker specializing in films about wildlife and the environment. He has won over 300 awards for his work to spread awareness about biodiversity and species conservation. Mike Pandey has dedicated his life to the protection of wild nature through the use of cinematography and for his courage and determination in producing films – with or without sponsorships – that have influenced policy and saved endangered species.

He can be reached at his facebook page or through River Bank Studios website.

Story of an IT Employee


There is an IT Employee working as a software developer in a well known Multinational Company. When he is assigned for a project of one overseas client, he himself prepares a work breakdown structure, project plan and delivery schedule and gets an approval from his client.

As the projects kicks off, he starts following the scrum, responds to each and every email from his client within no time, gives daily and weekly updates of his tasks so his client knows the progress of the project.

As the project deadline nears, he delivers well tested, bug Free software to his client well in advance of the deadline.  So, as you have read, he works very hard, puts his all efforts and dedication into the project ( burns midnight oil ) and delivers a quality product to the client. So, the end result should be his client appreciating his efforts  and his company may be considering for his name in next appraisal … right ?

But wait.. what finally happens is His overseas client asks his employer ( MNC Company ) to pay $$$ to them ( client ) for the work done by him … ( business not as usual.. right? read the sentence again )..

Well, The story doesn’t end here,

Now the same IT employees father is a farmer cultivating their ancestral land in their hometown village. This year, he envisions that there could be some good market for onions, hence sows the Onion’s into his farm. He irrigates that onion farm on time, takes care from all the natural calamities like unseasonable rain, hailstorm etc, and harvests good quality onion crop and takes it to the market for selling. In the market when he sells those onions and gets a payment receipt.. on it, he was actually asked to pay ₹₹₹ rupees from his own pocket, in return of the onions which he just now sold into market…..

Sooooooo, which story would you like to believe, first half… story of the IT Employee or the second half… story of his father who is a farmer.

If you think, the story of the IT Employee is just impossible to believe and at the same time and gave your silent nod to the story of his farmer father.. aren’t we doing some injustice to the Farmers ? What you think …….


We are IT Engineers, and our father is a farmer and its the time for us to give it back from where we came. Green Ecosystem is our baby step into this.. Visit our website and explore the world of Agro Ecosystem and see how you can get benefited from it.

Reference’s to story of a farmer :


Farmer showing his 1 Rupee after selling 952 Kg of Onion

[ Photo Credit, FB post from Ravish Kumar ]

Watch the Video of Farmer as covered in Ravish Kumar’s prime time debate, and also know views and facts from Agriculture Economist Devinder Sharma at ]


Payment receipt of 1 Rs Earned by farmer, after selling 952 Kg of Onion.

[ Picture Credit, Facebook post ]

If you liked or disliked our attempt, share your comments, suggestions, feedback here.. Do Share & tweet this post..

Farmer Suicides and the Global food crisis: A Story not told, TEDx Talk by Devinder Sharma


With the formation of WTO, a new international economic world order came into being. This has greatly affected the fate of farmers in developing countries across the world. While the successes of the new global trade regime have been appreciated, the issue of rising number of farmer suicides has faltered out of attention in the public discourse. Mr. Sharma elaborates on the impact of the continuing agrarian crisis in India and calls for a concerted effort in arresting the escalation of the crisis.

Journalist, Writer, Thinker, Trade Policy Analyst, Trained as an Agricultural Scientist, Mr. Sharma has dedicated his life towards working on a range of policy issues including agriculture, sustainable development, urbanization, International Trade Law. He is a distinguished food and trade policy analyst. With his articles, reports and blogs, he has managed to get to several million people and changed the way they saw the science of eating.

This talk was given at a TEDx event using the TED conference format but independently organized by a local community. Learn more at

We are what we eat and plants give us what we feed – TEDx talk by Ramanjaneyulu GV


Is our food safe? A red alert question that Ramanjaneyulu, puts out to all of us. Hear him talk about the quality of food we are eating. Listen to the reasons we need to adapt to organic farming as a results of excessive use of chemical pesticides and horrifying facts and statistics, surrounding them. He alerts us to the damage we are doing to our ecological footprints. In his heart wrenching talk, Ramanjaneyulu, highlights the plight of farmers and the reasons they commit suicide and the many reasons that farmers and farming should not die.

“We are what we eat and plants give us what we feed.” He is waging a war against the use of pesticides in agricultural activities and has challenged the traditional methods of farming. Apart from running the Centre for Sustainable Agriculture as the Executive Director, he also runs a small outlet, Sahaja Ahaaram, which stocks pest-free products from farmers. After leaving his full-time government job, Ramanjaneyulu dedicated himself to the benefit of farmers and his campaign, ‘India for Safe Food’.

This talk was given at a TEDx event using the TED conference format but independently organized by a local community. Learn more at

Credit :

Opensource softwares for Agriculture / Farm Management

Android App


farmOS is a web-based application for farm management and planning. It is built on Drupal, which makes it modular, extensible, and secure. Openlayers is used for mapping and geodata manipulation.

Check the article “Installing FarmOS on Linux/Ubuntu Desktop” if you want to try the FarmOS software by your own. The source code is also available at github repo.


AgroSense is a free and open source farm management and decision making software. The source code is available at bitbucket & check the limetri website. You can also download the Windows & Linux executables of this software from website atdownloads page


Open Ag Toolkit ( OpenATK ) makes it easier to manage farms by improving the way farmers are able to collect and use information. written some simple, free, open-source mobile apps that sync across everyone on a farm through existing cloud services like Trello and Dropbox. You can find the source codes for these apps at github , also you can visit OpenATK website.

Consumed – dramatic thriller that explores the complex world of genetically modified food

consumed movie

Consumed – CONSUMED is a dramatic thriller that explores the complex world of genetically modified food.
The story is anchored by a working-class, single Mother on a hunt to uncover the cause of her son’s mysterious illness. Interwoven are the stories of an Organic farmer, the CEO of a biotechnology corporation, two Scientists on the verge of a major discovery, and an ex-Cop caught in the middle of it all.

Watch the Trailer at Youtube

Visit the Movie website –

Agriwin – India’s leading manufacturer of Low Tunnel, Non-Woven Fabric


“Agriwin” is leading company in INDIA who promote new technology in Indian agriculture sector for use of “LOW TUNNEL” among small farmers .

Our project is about the production of vegetables & reducing use of pesticides for insect control by using low tunnel farming. It’s an emerging opportunities in Indian cultivation of vegetable as well leafy vegetables without use of pesticides in Gujarat, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and other states in India.

As per our study, the production of vegetables in the country is currently limited to certain time period during the year due to seasonal variations. However, due to the invention of modern agriculture there is an opportunity for growing a variety of vegetables in winter & Summer as well in off-season. With the help of this Technic farmers can reduce use of pesticides. They protect crop from frost in winter as well heat waves in summer. With the help of Low Tunnel temperature variation upto 5 degree in both season with compare to out side temperature like warmer in winter and cool in summer.

Benefit of Crop Cover / Row cover/ Frost cover:

  1. Drastically reduces frost damage by cushioning sudden temperature drops( Can be use in Winter and Summer )
  2. Creates suitable micro-climate for growth & development
  3. Enables earlier seeding hence larger yields (upto 15%)
  4. Protecting the plants against insects and birds.
  5. Protects from hailstorms, frost, and heavy gusts of wind.
  6. Reduction in the need for pesticides treatment of plants (Reduce upto 70%)
  7. Used for off-season production.
  8. Better air/water and gas permeability.
  9. Can provide local greenhouse effect

Crop Cover used in:

cultivation of melon, water melon, Carrots,pumpkins, Tomatoes, Radish, Cauliflower, Potatoes, Spinach,Leeks, Herbs, Shrubs and Flowers etc.

Watch Agriwin MD speaking about Low Tunnel Technology currently getting used in Jaipur for Vegetable Cuntivation

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Low Tunnel

Use of Agriwin Non-Woven Fabric for Banana Cultivation

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Using Agriwin Non-Woven Fabric for protecting pomegranates from Sunburn protection

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Disclaimer : This article is shared by Agriwin with “Green Ecosystem” as paid promotional article. We advice users to contact concerned organisation / representatives for more information, pricing etc. You can comment on this article with your reviews / feedaback etc or Contact with title of this article if any.

Bali Janara Raja

The Article below titled “Bali Janara Raja” meaning “King who have to sacrifice himself” is directed to the situation of India farmers.

Article starts with how Author Mr. Amitabh Pawde who was a Executive Engineer with Airports authority of India was using accuweather website & information from Indian meteorology departments for weather prediction during the development. When he returned to Nagpur and started working as full time farmer and started using accuweather website for gathering information regarding hailstorms to protect crops. He also tought the use and benefits of website to Ms. Shweta Bhattad who again tought this to youth from Village Paradshinga and started publishing information onto blackboard in village so all farmers can be benefited.

Bali Janara Raja

Organizations working for opensource in agriculture and allied sector


Open Food Network

Founded in Australia, the Open Food Network started as a little experiment with a van, some farmers and some friends. Since then it has grown to become an open source platform collaboratively nurtured by like-minded people around the world.

The Open Food Network is the flagship project of the Open Food Foundation is a non-profit, registered charity established in October 2012 to develop, accumulate and protect open source knowledge, code, applications and platforms for fair and sustainable food systems.

If you want to try the open food network software by your own you can by following steps from ” Installing Open Food Network online marketplace for local food on Ubuntu Linux “

The open food networks source code is available at github openfood repo.


Open Food Facts

Open Food Facts is a free, open and collaborative database of food products from the entire world. On the website there is list of foods with the details of each products ingredients, nutrition facts etc which are submitted by people. The contributors to the Open Food Facts project are people that are passionate about food. They add products to the database and they are also the primary source for improvements and applications ideas through the Idea Forum and several others venues for the Open Food Facts community to share and discuss.  The source code is available at github.

Farm Hack

Farm Hack is a worldwide community of farmers who build and modify own tools. Community people share their own hacks online and at meet ups because the community believe we can become better farmers when we work together. Farm hack website is a good resource to find the information about lots of innovative tools required for farming and there you can find the designs of those tools open for everyone.

You can read information about one of such tool “Culticycle – A pedal powered tractor by Farmhack” at the article.

Open Agriculture Initiative (OpenAG)

The Open Agriculture Initiative (OpenAG) is an An open source ecosystem of food technologies to create healthier, more engaging and more inventive food systems. Its mission is to create more farmers for the future of food production. OpenAG is developing the open source hardware and software platforms for sensor-controlled hydroponic and aeroponic agriculture systems. Visit OpenAG Website.

Agriculture in India – Statistics


As per the land use statistics 2011-12, the total geographical area of the country is 328.7 million hectares of which 159.59 million hectares is the reported net sown area.

Cropped Area

As per Agriculture Census 2010-11 The Gross Cropped Area (GCA) was estimated at 193.76 million hectare. The nine States, viz., Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, and West Bengal together account for about 78 per cent of the Gross Cropped Area in the country.


Irrigated Area

Net irrigated area ( area irrigated through any source once in a year for a particular crop ) during Agriculture Census 2010-11 was total 64.57 million hectare, out of which 48.16 percent is accounted by Small and Marginal holdings, 43.77 percent by Semi-medium & Medium holdings and 8.07 percent by Large holdings. Out of 5 sources ( canals, tanks, wells, tube-wells & other ) of irrigation for which the data was collected Tube-wells (29.16 million hectare ) was main source of irrigation followed by canals (16.19 million hectare).

The gross irrigated area (total area under crops,irrigated once and/or more than once in a year. It is counted as many times as the number of times the areas are cropped and irrigated in a year) came to 87.77 million hectares which was 45.30% of the gross cropped area ( GCA ) while 45.70% of the net area sown was irrigated.


Cropping Intensity

The Cropping Intensity is the ratio of Net Area Sown to the Total Cropped Area. As per Agriculture Census 2010-11 Cropping Intensity works out to 1.37.

Land Holding per farmer

An operational holding is defined as “all land which is used wholly or partly for Agricultural production and is operated as one Technical Unit by one person alone or with others without regard to title, legal form, size or location”. On the basis of operated area, operational holdings in Agriculture Census are categorized as follows:-


Sl.No.CategoryOperated Area
1Marginal holdingsBelow 1.00 hectare
2Small holdings1.00 – 2.00 hectares
3Semi-Medium holdings2.00 – 4.00 hectares
4Medium holdings4.00 – 10.00 hectares
5Large holdings10.00 hectares and above


The average size of the holding has been estimated as 1.15 hectare. The average size of holdings has shown a steady declining trend over various Agriculture Censuses since, 1970-71.

Size Group wise percentage of number and area of operational holdings are given in the following table.


Sl.NoSize-GroupPercentage of number of operational holdings to totalPercentage of area operated to total
1Marginal (below 1.00 ha.)67.1022.50
2Small (1.00 – 2.00 ha.)17.9122.08
3Semi-medium (2.00 – 4.00 ha.)10.0423.63
4Medium (4.00 – 10.00 ha.)4.2521.20
5Large (10.00 ha. & above)0.7010.59

The concept of agricultural operational holdings does not include those holdings which are not operating any agricultural land and are engaged exclusively in livestock, poultry and fishing etc. About 97.61% of operational holdings were wholly owned and self operated.



Total number of operational holdings were estimated as 138.35 million. 96.95 per cent of operational holdings, entire operated area was located within the village of residence.

Food Production

In 2013-14, total foodgrain production has been estimated at 265.57 million tones as per the Final Estimates (FE), which is higher by 8.44 million tones than the 2012-13 production and 22.84 million tones than average foodgrain production during the last five years.


Contribution to GDP

The Agriculture and Allied Sector contributed approximately 13.9% of India’s GDP (at constant 2004-05 prices) during 2013-14. There has been a continuous decline in the share of Agriculture and Allied Sector in the GDP from 14.6 % in 2010-11 to 13.9 % in 2013-14 at 2004-05 prices.


The detailed data /tables of Agriculture Census are available in the website of the Department at also check pdf from Agriculture Census Report